The French and Indian War was a nine-year conflict between England and France (1754-1763). Both England and France had allies among the Native American tribes, who fought alongside them. The war was fought over a wide geographical area: in North America, Europe, and on the high seas. In Europe, it was known as the Seven Years War. In North America, fighting began chiefly because both England and France had claimed the land known as the Ohio River Valley in the hopes of expanding their fur trades (in other words, the primary cause of the war was greed). The first armed conflict took place at what is now Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and involved future American president George Washington. Subsequent battles took place in present-day New York State, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. After nine years, the French were defeated and were forced to give up their land claims in North America east of the Mississippi River (including Canada), with the exception of a few small islands. The final result of the French and Indian War was the passage of the Stamp Act -- the British Parliament's attempt to make up for financial losses from the war by taxing American colonists on all printed documents. This event started a chain of events which led eventually to the American Revolution.